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Trees and shovels: ready for planting

Forêt Capitale Forest aims to mitigate climate change by increasing the biomass and forest canopy of lands, whether public or private, in the Canada’s capital region.

We carry out and support the planning, planting, and management of lands to maximizes carbon sequestration while preserving and enhancing biological diversity.

FCF also seeks to maximize public engagement and raise awareness of the importance of forests and biodiversity.

Challenges: The Gypsy Moth

With winter soon approaching, Forêt Capitale Forest needs to reflect on the challenges, along with the successes, that our tree stock has so resiliently faced throughout the year. One of these challenges was the gypsy moth.

The gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar dispar) is a European insect that was unintentionally introduced to Ontario, Quebec and the Maritime provinces in the 70s. Today the gypsy moth is most prevalent in Southern Ontario and, common outbreaks occur every 7 to 10 years.  

Some of the common trees affected include oak (Quercus spp.), maple (Acer spp.), birch (Betula spp.), white pine (Pinus strobus), and white spruce (Picea glauca). One gypsy moth can eat up to 1,000 square centimetres of leaves.

While defoliation by the gypsy moth can delay growth and wood quality, it typically does not cause a tree to perish. Trees will produce additional leaves later in the growing season to accommodate for the loss. 

Methods of Control

  • With gloved hands, pick off or scrape caterpillars and larvae and put them into soapy water or bleach for 48 hours.
  • Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki – A biological insecticide found at most hardware stores. 
  • Alternatively, you can try biodegradable sprays (use with caution, as not to disturb other insects or wildlife)
  • Dormant oil combined with lime sulphur
  • The most common method of control is to use a folded piece of burlap. You will need to tie the burlap around the trunk of the tree with a string. Gypsy moths will get caught or conjugate in the burlap, which can then be removed and shaken into your compost bin and reapplied to the tree.

Tip: Ensure you check the underside of branches, tree trunks, fences, firewood, outdoor furniture, swing sets, boats, trailers and under the eaves of buildings for egg masses.

The City of Ottawa is monitoring the ongoing outbreak. The outbreak is estimated to last two to three years. While the Lymantria dispar dispar poses a challenge, Forêt Capitale Forest will monitor trees accordingly to ensure ongoing efforts are not affected.

References

Butterfly Conservation. (n.d.). Gypsy moth. Gypsy Moth. Retrieved September 15, 2021, from https://butterfly-conservation.org/moths/gypsy-moth. 

Fleming, T. (2021, June 18). Gypsy moth caterpillars invade Ottawa’s trees this spring. Ottawa. Retrieved September 15, 2021, from https://ottawa.ctvnews.ca/gypsy-moth-caterpillars-invade-ottawa-s-trees-this-spring-1.5476961. 

National Capital Commission. (n.d.). Management of lymantria dispar dispar moth. Management of Lymantria dispar dispar Moth. Retrieved September 15, 2021, from https://ncc-ccn.gc.ca/projects/management-of-the-ldd-moth. 

Public Works and Environmental Services Dept. (2021, April 19). Gypsy moths. City of Ottawa. Retrieved September 15, 2021, from https://ottawa.ca/en/living-ottawa/environment-conservation-and-climate/trees-and-urban-forests/tree-and-forest-health/gypsy-moths#european-gypsy-moths-lymantria-dispar-dispar. 

Westoll, N. (2021, June 17). Outbreak of gypsy moth caterpillars ravaging trees in Ontario and there could be record damage. Global News. Retrieved September 15, 2021, from https://globalnews.ca/news/7948202/gypsy-moth-caterpillars-ontario-trees/. 


Défis: La spongieuse

La spongieuse (Lymantria dispar dispar) est un insecte européen qui a été introduit involontairement en Ontario, au Québec et dans les provinces maritimes dans les années 70. Aujourd’hui, la spongieuse est plus répandue dans le sud de l’Ontario et des épidémies se produisent tous les 7 à 10 ans. 

Parmi les arbres communément touchés, on trouve le chêne (Quercus spp.), l’érable (Acer spp.), le bouleau (Betula spp.), le pin blanc (Pinus strobus) et l’épinette blanche (Picea glauca). Une seule spongieuse peut manger jusqu’à 1 000 centimètres carrés de feuilles.

Si la défoliation par la spongieuse peut retarder la croissance et la qualité du bois, elle n’entraîne généralement pas la mort de l’arbre. Les arbres produiront des feuilles supplémentaires plus tard dans la saison de croissance pour compenser la perte.

Méthodes de Lutte

  • Avec des mains gantées, arrachez ou grattez les chenilles et les larves et mettez-les dans de l’eau savonneuse ou de l’eau de Javel pendant 48 heures.
  • Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki – Un insecticide biologique que l’on trouve dans la plupart des quincailleries. 
  • Huile de dormance combinée au soufre de chaux 
  • La méthode de lutte la plus courante consiste à utiliser un morceau de toile de jute plié. Vous devrez attacher la toile de jute autour du tronc de l’arbre avec une ficelle. Les spongieuses se prendront ou se conjugueront dans la toile de jute, qui peut ensuite être retirée et secouée dans votre bac à compost et réappliquée sur l’arbre.

Conseil: Vérifiez le dessous des branches, des troncs d’arbre, des clôtures, du bois de chauffage, des meubles d’extérieur, des balançoires, des bateaux, des remorques et sous les avant-toits des bâtiments pour voir s’il y a des masses d’œufs.

La ville d’Ottawa supervise l’épidémie en cours et prévoit qu’elle durera de deux à trois ans. Bien que le Lymantria dispar pose un défi, Forêt Capitale surveillera les arbres en conséquence pour s’assurer que les efforts en cours ne sont pas affectés.

Références

Conservation des papillons. (s.d.). Gypsy moth. Gypsy Moth. Consulté le 15 septembre 2021 à l’adresse https://butterfly-conservation.org/moths/gypsy-moth. 

Fleming, T. (2021, 18 juin). Les chenilles de la spongieuse envahissent les arbres d’Ottawa ce printemps. Ottawa. Consulté le 15 septembre 2021 à l’adresse https://ottawa.ctvnews.ca/gypsy-moth-caterpillars-invade-ottawa-s-trees-this-spring-1.5476961.

Commission de la capitale nationale. (s.d.). Gestion du papillon de nuit Lymantria dispar dispar. Gestion du papillon de nuit Lymantria dispar dispar. Consulté le 15 septembre 2021 à l’adresse https://ncc-ccn.gc.ca/projects/management-of-the-ldd-moth. 

Public Works and Environmental Services Dept. (2021, 19 avril). La spongieuse. Ville d’Ottawa. Consulté le 15 septembre 2021 à l’adresse https://ottawa.ca/en/living-ottawa/environment-conservation-and-climate/trees-and-urban-forests/tree-and-forest-health/gypsy-moths#european-gypsy-moths-lymantria-dispar-dispar.

Westoll, N. (2021, 17 juin). L’épidémie de chenilles de la spongieuse ravage les arbres en Ontario et les dommages pourraient atteindre un niveau record. Global News. Consulté le 15 septembre 2021 à l’adresse https://globalnews.ca/news/7948202/gypsy-moth-caterpillars-ontario-trees/.

What do you know about the state of our forests?

The Food and Agriculture Organization produced this Global Forest Resources Assessment for 2020 on the status of forests globally. The report beautifully represents the data and makes it easy to understand. Did you know that over 1/2 of the world’s forests are in 5 countries, one of them being Canada?

The number of hectares of forest under long-term management plans has increased since 2000. This is such an encouraging trend. Forêt Capitale Forest is currently creating a plan for the Ottawa region. If you are interested in helping fund our plan, please consider donating to our 2021 program.